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Monkey pox: in France, symptoms, how is it caught?

Monkey pox: in France, symptoms, how is it caught?
Written by madishthestylebar

MONKEYPOX. After England, Canada, Spain, Portugal, the United States, France announces a case of monkey pox also called “Monkeypox”. This disease can be transmitted to humans by rodents or monkeys. What’s this ? What symptoms? Treatments? Is it dangerous? Contagious ? We take stock.

[Mise à jour le 21 mai 2022 à 20h21] The monkeypox virus or virus “Monkeypox” is the origin of a infectious disease transmitted to humans by animals, especially rodents and monkeys. The first human cases of infection were detected in 1970, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 80 cases are currently recorded worldwide. WHO and its partners are working to better understand the extent and cause of this new monkeypox outbreak. The virus is endemic in certain animal populations in a number of countries, causing occasional outbreaks among the local population and travelers. Recent outbreaks reported in 11 countries so far are atypical, as they occur in non-endemic countries. explains the World Health Organization (WHO). On May 16, 2022, theBritish Agency health safety (UKHSA) reported about ten monkeypox case mainly among homosexuals, bisexuals or men who have sex with other men.” On May 13, the Portugal notify 5 confirmed cases and 15 suspected cases under investigation. “These 20 cases concerning men, youth for the majority“says Public Health France. On May 18, 2022, the Canada and Spain have announced that it had detected cases of monkeypox. The Sweden also confirms a case. The UNITED STATES reported a first case on May 19. In Francethe Directorate General of Health confirmed on May 19 a first suspected case of monkey pox in Ile-de-France. “As soon as his infection was suspected, this person was taken care of. In the absence of gravity, she is isolated in her home. This is a 29-year-old man with no history of travel to a country where the virus is circulating” indicates Public Health France on May 20. “In France, infections by orthopoxviruses including Monkeypox are the subject of a permanent monitoring by the device of the Mandatory Declaration. Given the current alerts, surveillance of these infections is reinforced by Public Health France and recommendations have been sent to health professionals by the ministry“adds the health organization. For all the confirmed cases, the analyzes have highlighted a virus belonging to the “West Africa” ​​clade of the MKP1 virus, suggesting a original link with Nigeriaa country in which the virus has been circulating regularly since 2017. Apart from the case reported in the United Kingdom on May 7 imported from Nigeria, new reported cases do not relate to travel to Africa or link with a person returning from Africa. “At this stage, the cases reported are mostly mild, and there are no reported deaths” specifies the DGS. What’s this monkey pox? What are the symptoms ? How is it transmitted to humans? What treatments to cure her? What is the situation in France ? Is this virus dangerous ?

Definition: what is monkeypox?

L’simian orthopox virusor “monkey pox”, is a rare viral zoonosis (virus transmitted to humans by animals) which is mainly observed in isolated areas of central and western Africaclose to tropical rainforests“says the WHO.”The african rodents and non-human primates (such as monkeys) can harbor the virus and infect humans” says the US Agency for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “This virus clinically resembles smallpox but monkeypox is due to a poxvirus different from smallpox virus explains the World Health Organization (WHO). The first human case was detected in 1970, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in a 9-year-old boy living in an area where smallpox had been eliminated since 1968.

Image of a macaque © grigory_bruev-123RF

How many cases of monkeypox in France?

The Directorate General of Health confirmed on May 20 a first suspected case of monkey pox in Ile-de-France. “This is a 29 year old male no history of travel to a country where the virus is circulating“said Public Health France that same day. As soon as their infection was suspected, the person was taken care of. In the absence of seriousness, they are isolated at their home. in-depth epidemiological investigation is carried out by the Public Health France and ARS Ile-de-France teams, in conjunction with the doctor who treated this person. The people who have been in close contact with this patient are being counted. They will receive information from the health authorities on what to do in order to limit the spread of the virus. Monkeypox infection is a reportable disease.

If symptoms appear, contact SAMU Center 15.

What are the symptoms of monkeypox?

Symptoms resemble those of patients with smallpoxbut lighter. In the first 5 days, the infection causes several symptoms:

  • fever
  • headache
  • adenopathy (swollen lymph nodes)
  • back pain
  • myalgia (muscle aches)
  • asthenia (exhaustion)

Within 1 to 3 days (sometimes longer) of the onset of feverthe patient develops rash symptoms (rash) that often starts on the face and then spreads to other parts of the body, including the palms of the hands, soles of the feet and the mucous membranes (mouth and genital area). Skin involvement occurs in one push. From itching are frequent. The lesions go through different successive stages:

  • smudges
  • papules
  • vesicles
  • pustules
  • scabs

When the scabs fall off, people are no longer contagious. The other mucous membranes (ENT, conjunctivae) may also be affected. Recently detected cases in men who have sex with men have reported a preponderance of lesions in the genital area. “incubation disease can range from 5 to 21 days. The fever phase lasts about 1 to 3 days. The disease, generally benign, most often heals spontaneously, after 2 to 3 weeks” emphasizes Public Health France.

► If symptoms appear (fever and rash with blisters), contact the SAMU Center 15. It is recommended that you isolate pending medical advice and avoid contact with other people.

Transmission: how is monkey pox caught?

“The virus is mainly transmitted to humans from various wild animalsrodents or primates for example, but secondary spread by human-to-human transmission is limited” reassures the WHO. The infection is caused by a direct contact with blood, body fluids, or broken skin or mucous membranes of infected animals. “In Africa, human infections have been documented following the handling of infected monkeys, Gambian giant rats and squirrels, with rodents thought to be the main reservoir of the virus. The consumption of meat from infected animals undercooked is a possible risk factor develops WHO. Human-to-human transmission occurs primarily through respiratory droplet particles. Other modes of human-to-human transmission include direct skin contact with body fluids or the lesion, and indirect contact with the lesion, e.g. through clothing, linens or contaminated dishes. “It is therefore important that the patients respect isolation throughout the duration of the disease (until the disappearance of the last scabs, usually 3 weeks)” recommends Public Health France. According to researchers from thePastor Institutetransmission of monkeypox virus outside of Africa”is probably due to global decline in immunity to viruses of the orthopoxvirus genus (responsible for human smallpox), followingstopping smallpox vaccinationin the 1980s. Monkeypox could therefore become the most important orthopoxvirus infection in humans”.

Is monkeypox contagious?

There may be transmission of the disease between men, for example within the same family via exposure to respiratory droplets from the infected person, but this generally requires a prolonged face-to-face contactpoints out the WHO. The disease is thus not very contagious between men. It can also occur by inoculation or by the placental route (congenital simian orthopoxvirosis).

Diagnosing the disease requires a analysis of the virus in the laboratory.

What is the treatment for monkeypox?

“There is no no specific treatment or vaccine although smallpox vaccination has been shown to be very effective in preventing monkeypox as well” emphasizes the WHO. Monkeypox is a disease whose patient usually heals spontaneously in two to three weeks.

Is there a monkeypox vaccine?

There is no no vaccine against Monkeypox but the one against smallpox would be 85% effective according to the Pasteur Institute.

Is monkeypox fatal?

“The rate of mortality during outbreaks of monkeypox has become established between 1% and 10%, most of death occurring in young people“says the WHO.”The illness usually lasts 2 to 4 weeks. In Africa, monkeypox has been shown to cause the death of at least 1 in 10 people who contracts the disease” establishes the CDC. “Disease is more severe in children and in immunocompromised people. It can be complicated by superinfection of the skin lesions or by respiratory, digestive or ophthalmological or neurological damage. At this stage, the cases reported in Europe are mostly mild, and there are no reported deaths“reports Public Health France on May 20.

Sources:

– Monkeypox, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

– Simian orthopoxvirus, WHO, June 6, 2018

– Pastor Institute

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